# amide hydrogen bonding

Amines are a basic functional group. But it is also true that the sequences of the DNA in the cells of two individual pugs differ. If this is the first set of questions you have done, please read the introductory page before you start. Various nomenclatures are used to derive names for amines, but all involve the class-identifying suffix –ine as illustrated here for a few simple examples: Write two complete, balanced equations for each of the following reactions, one using condensed formulas and one using Lewis structures. A genetic molecule is called DNA, which stands for deoxyribonucleic acid. Amines are a basic functional group. The formation of the bond results in the production of a molecule of water (in general, reactions that result in the production of water when two other molecules combine are referred to as condensation reactions). However, this lone pair is actually significantly delocalised towards the carbonyl bond. It probably makes sense that the sequence of nucleotides in the DNA of a cat differs from those of a dog. Proteins are large biological molecules made up of long chains of smaller molecules called amino acids. An amide bond is a chemical bond that occurs between a hydroxyl group of a carboxylic group (-COOH) of one molecule and a hydrogen of an amino group (-NH 2) of another molecule. This reaction produces a molecule of water (H2O) and two amino acids joined by a peptide bond (-CO-N… They can react with H3O+ in a dilute acid to form an ammonium salt, and this property is used to extract them from the plant: ${\text{R}}_{3}\text{N}+{\text{H}}_{3}{\text{O}}^{+}+{\text{Cl}}^{-}\rightarrow\left[{\text{R}}_{3}{\text{NH}}^{+}\right]{\text{Cl}}^{-}+{\text{H}}_{2}\text{O}$. propionic acid is poured onto solid calcium carbonate. This is, reduced to its significant chemical functional group an amide, more precisely a carboxylic amide. Enzymes are large biological molecules, mostly composed of proteins, which are responsible for the thousands of metabolic processes that occur in living organisms. The most commonly discussed amide is ethanamide, CH3CONH2 (old name: acetamide). Kevlar (Figure 6) is a synthetic polymer made from two monomers 1,4-phenylene-diamine and terephthaloyl chloride (Kevlar is a registered trademark of DuPont). Morphine, a strong narcotic used to relieve pain, contains two hydroxyl functional groups, located at the bottom of the molecule in this structural formula. ${\text{CH}}_{3}\underline{\text{C}}\text{H}=\underline{\text{C}}{\text{HCH}}_{3}\left(s{p}^{2}\right)+\text{Cl}\rightarrow{\text{CH}}_{3}\underline{\text{C}}\text{H}\left(\text{Cl}\right)\text{H}\left(\text{Cl}\right){\text{CH}}_{3}\left(s{p}^{3}\right);$, $2{\underline{\text{C}}}_{6}{\text{H}}_{6}\left(s{p}^{2}\right)+15{\text{O}}_{2}\rightarrow 12\underline{\text{C}}{\text{O}}_{2}\left(sp\right)+6{\text{H}}_{2}\text{O}$, 10. the carbon in CO32-, initially at sp2, changes hybridization to sp in CO2, amine: organic molecule in which a nitrogen atom is bonded to one or more alkyl group, amide: organic molecule that features a nitrogen atom connected to the carbon atom in a carbonyl group, are molecules that contain carbon-nitrogen bonds. The plant produces these substances, collectively called secondary plant compounds, as chemical defenses against the numerous pests that attempt to feed on the plant: In these diagrams, as is common in representing structures of large organic compounds, carbon atoms in the rings and the hydrogen atoms bonded to them have been omitted for clarity. The resulting bond—between the carbonyl group carbon atom and the amine nitrogen atom is called a peptide link or peptide bond. Methyl amine is added to a solution of HCl. Figure 8. as illustrated here for a few simple examples: Describe the structure and properties of an amine, Describe the structure and properties of an amide, Write the Lewis structures of both isomers with the formula C, What is the molecular structure about the nitrogen atom in trimethyl amine and in the trimethyl ammonium ion, (CH, Write the two resonance structures for the pyridinium ion, C, Draw Lewis structures for pyridine and its conjugate acid, the pyridinium ion, C, Write the Lewis structures of all isomers with the formula C. Write two complete balanced equations for the following reaction, one using condensed formulas and one using Lewis structures. Figure 6. The nitrogen atom in an amine has a lone pair of electrons and three bonds to other atoms, either carbon or hydrogen. (Figure 4) A chain of connected amino acids is called a polypeptide. It is through this reaction that amino acids (molecules containing both amine and carboxylic acid substituents) link together in a polymer to form proteins. Each nucleotide consists of a single- or double-ringed molecule containing nitrogen, carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen called a nitrogenous base. The properties of proteins are functions of the combination of amino acids that compose them and can vary greatly. Like amines, various nomenclature rules may be used to name amides, but all include use of the class-specific suffix –amide: Amides can be produced when carboxylic acids react with amines or ammonia in a process called amidation. A carboxylic acid contains the -COOH group, and in an amide the -OH part of that group is replaced by an -NH2 group. The material has a high tensile strength-to-weight ratio (it is about 5 times stronger than an equal weight of steel), making it useful for many applications from bicycle tires to sails to body armor. Kevlar may be best known as a component of body armor, combat helmets, and face masks. The four molecules that make up DNA are called nucleotides. The table here summarizes the structures discussed in this chapter: The addition of nitrogen into an organic framework leads to two families of molecules. Amides are molecules that contain nitrogen atoms connected to the carbon atom of a carbonyl group. Various nomenclatures are used to derive names for amines, but all involve the class-identifying suffix –ine as illustrated here for a few simple examples: In some amines, the nitrogen atom replaces a carbon atom in an aromatic hydrocarbon. Enzymes function by lowering the activation energy of the reaction they are catalyzing, which can dramatically increase the rate of the reaction. The table here summarizes the structures discussed in this chapter: The addition of nitrogen into an organic framework leads to two families of molecules. One disease that is the result of an enzyme malfunction is phenylketonuria. A water molecule is eliminated from the reaction, and the amide is formed from the remaining pieces of the carboxylic acid and the amine (note the similarity to formation of an ester from a carboxylic acid and an alcohol discussed in the previous section): The reaction between amines and carboxylic acids to form amides is biologically important. The nitrogen atom in an amine has a lone pair of electrons and three bonds to other atoms, either carbon or hydrogen. Pyridine (Figure 1) is one such heterocyclic amine. Since the function of enzymes is so specific, the lack or malfunctioning of an enzyme can lead to serious health consequences. Likewise, forensic geneticists can determine whether a crime scene sample of human tissue, such as blood or skin cells, contains DNA that matches exactly the DNA of a suspect. Compounds containing a nitrogen atom bonded in a hydrocarbon framework are classified as amines. Various nomenclatures are used to derive names for amines, but all involve the class-identifying suffix –ine as illustrated here for a few simple examples: In some amines, the nitrogen atom replaces a carbon atom in an aromatic hydrocarbon.